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LL.B. 3 Years Course


3-Year Degree Course:
The candidate should passed any Graduation (10+2+3 pattern) of a recognized University with 45% of aggregate marks or any other examination recognized as equivalent by the Universities concerned. 44.5% or more shall be rounded off and treated as 45%.
The candidates who have less than the prescribed percentage but have secured the same percentage or more on the aggregate in any PG Degree (Masters Degree) or B.Ed are eligible.





Unit-I : Definition and essentials of a valid Contract – Definition and essentials of a valid Offer – Definition and essentials of valid Acceptance – Communication of Offer and Acceptance – Revocation of Offer and Acceptance through various modes including electronic medium – Consideration – salient features – Exception to consideration – Doctrine of Privity of Contract – Exceptions to the privity of contract – Standard form of Contract.

Unit-II : Capacity of the parties – Effect of Minor’s Agreement – Contracts with insane persons and persons disqualified by law – Concepts of Free Consent – Coercion – Undue influence – Misrepresentation – Fraud – Mistake – Lawful Object – Immoral agreements and various heads of public policy – illegal agreements – Uncertain agreements – Wagering agreements – Contingent contracts – Void and Voidable contracts.

Unit-III: Discharge of Contracts – By performance – Appropriation of payments – Performance by joint promisors – Discharge by Novation – Remission – Accord and Satisfaction – Discharge by impossibility of performance (Doctrine of Frustration) – Discharge by Breach – Anticipatory Breach – Actual breach.

Unit-IV : Quasi Contract – Necessaries supplied to a person who is incapable of entering into a contract – Payment by an interested person – Liability to pay for non-gratuitous acts – Rights of finder of lost goods – Things delivered by mistake or coercion – Quantum meruit – Remedies for breach of contract – Kinds of damages – liquidated and unliquidated damages and penalty – Duty to mitigate.

Unit-V : Specific Relief – Recovering possession of property – Specific performance of the contract – Rectification of instruments – Rescission of contracts – Cancellation of instruments – Declaratory Decrees – Preventive Relief – Injunctions – Generally – Temporary and Perpetual injunctions – Mandatory & Prohibitory injunctions – Injunctions to perform negative agreement.

Unit-I : Sources of Hindu Law – Scope and application of Hindu Law – Schools of Hindu Law – Mitakshara and Dayabhaga Schools – Concept of Joint Family, Coparcenary, Joint Family Property and Coparcenary Property – Institution of Karta- Powers and Functions of Karta – Pious Obligation – Partition – Debts and alienation of property.

Unit-II : Marriage – Definition – Importance of institution of marriage under Hindu Law – Conditions of Hindu Marriage – Ceremonies and Registration – Monogamy – Polygamy.

Unit-III: Matrimonial Remedies under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 – Restitution of Conjugal Rights – Nullity of marriage – Judicial separation – Divorce – Maintenance pendente lite – importance of conciliation.

Unit-IV: Concept of Adoption – Law of Maintenance – Law of Guardianship – Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 – Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act 1956.

Unit-V : Succession – Intestate succession – Succession to the property of Hindu Male and Female; Dwelling House – Hindu Succession Act, 1956 as amended by the Hindu Succession (Andhra Pradesh Amendment) Act, 1986 & the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 – Notional Partition – Classes of heirs – Enlargement of limited estate of women into their absolute estate.



Constitution-Meaning and Significance – Evolution of Modern Constitutions -Classification of Constitutions-Indian Constitution – Historical Perspectives – Government of India Act, 1919 – Government of India Act, 1935 – Drafting of Indian Constitution – Role of Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly


Nature and Salient Features of Indian Constitution – Preamble to Indian Constitution – Union and its Territories-Citizenship – General Principles relating to Fundamental Rights(Art.13) – Definition of State


Right to Equality(Art.14-18) – Freedoms and Restrictions under Art.19 – Protection against Ex-post facto law – Guarantee against Double Jeopardy – Privilege against Self-incrimination – Right to Life and Personal Liberty – Right to Education – Protection against Arrest and Preventive Detention


Rights against Exploitation – Right to Freedom of Religion – Cultural and Educational Rights – Right to Constitutional Remedies – Limitations on Fundamental Rights(Art.31-A,B and C)


Directive Principles of State Policy – Significance – Nature – Classification – Application and Judicial Interpretation – Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles – Fundamental Duties – Significance – Judicial Interpretation


Unit-I : Nature of Law of Torts – Definition of Tort – Elements of Tort – Development of Law of Torts in England and India – Wrongful Act and Legal Damage – Damnum Sine Injuria and Injuria Sine Damnum – Tort distinguished from Crime and Breach of Contract – General Principles of Liability in Torts – Fault – Wrongful intent – Malice – Negligence – Liability without fault – Statutory liability – Parties to proceedings.

Unit-II General Defences to an action in Torts – Vicarious Liability – Liability of the State for Torts – Defence of Sovereign Immunity – Joint Liability – Liability of Joint Torfeasors – Rule of Strict Liability (Rylands V Fletcher) – Rule of Absolute Liability (MC Mehta vs. Union of India) – Occupiers liability – Extinction of liability – Waiver and Acquiescence – Release – Accord and Satisfaction – Death.

Unit-III Specific Torts – Torts affecting the person – Assault – Battery – False Imprisonment – Malicious Prosecution – Nervous Shock – Torts affecting Immovable Property – Trespass to land – Nuisance – Public Nuisance and Private Nuisance – Torts relating to movable property – Liability arising out of accidents (Relevant provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act).

Unit-IV Defamation – Negligence – Torts against Business Relations – Injurious falsehood – Negligent Misstatement – Passing off – Conspiracy – Torts affecting family relations – Remedies – Judicial and Extra-judicial Remedies – Damags – Kinds of Damages – Assessment of Damages – Remoteness of damage – Injunctions – Death in relation to tort – Actio personalis moritur cum persona.

Unit-V Consumer Laws: Common Law and the Consumer – Duty to take care and liability for negligence – Product Liability – Consumerism – Consumer Protection Act, 1986 – Salient features of the Act – Definition of Consumer – Rights of Consumers – Defects in goods and deficiency in services – Unfair trade practices – Redressal Machinery under the Consumer Protection Act – Liability of the Service Providers, Manufacturers and Traders under the Act – Remedies.


Unit-I The meaning and definition of environment – Ecology – Ecosystems-Biosphere – Biomes – Ozone depletion – Global Warning – Climatic changes – Need for the preservation, conservation and protection of environment – Ancient Indian approach to environment- Environmental degradation and pollution – Kinds, causes and effects of pollution.

Unit-II Common Law remedies against pollution – trespass, negligence, and theories of Strict Liability & Absolute Liability – Relevant provisions of I.P.C. and Cr.P.C. and C.P.C., for the abatement of public nuisance in pollution cases – Remedies under Specific Relief Act – Reliefs against smoke and noise – Noise Pollution.

Unit-III The law relating to the preservation, conservation and protection of forests, wild life and endangered species, marine life, coastal ecosystems and lakes etc. – Prevention of cruelty towards animals – The law relating to prevention and control of water pollution – Air Pollution – Environment pollution control mechanism – Law relating to environment protection – National Environmental Tribunal and National Environmental Appellate Authority.

Unit-IV: Art. 48A and Art. 51A(g) of the Constitution of India – Right to wholesome environment – Right to development – Restriction on freedom of trade, profession, occupation for the protection of environment – Immunity of Environment legislation from judicial scrutiny(Art.31C) – Legislative powers of the Centre and State Government – Writ jurisdiction – Role of Indian Judiciary in the evolution of environmental jurisprudence.

Unit-V International Environmental Regime – Transactional Pollution ­- State Liability – Customary International Law – Liability of Multinational Corporations/Companies – Stockholm Declaration on Human Environment, 1972 – The role of UNEP for the protection of environment – Ramsar Convention 1971 – Bonn Convention (Migratory Birds) 1992 – Nairobi Convention, 1982 (CFCC) – Biodiversity Convention (Earth Summit), 1992 – Kyoto Protocol 1997, Johannesburg Convention 2002.



Unit-I : Indemnity and Guarantee – Contract of Indemnity, definition – Rights of Indemnity holder – Liability of the indemnified – Contract of Guarantee – Definition of Guarantee – Essential characteristics of Contract of Guarantee – Distinction between Indemnity and Guarantee – Kinds of Guarantee – Rights and liabilities of Surety – Discharge of surety. Contract of Bailment – Definition of bailment – Essential requisites of bailment – Kinds of bailment – Rights and duties of bailor and bailee – Termination of bailment – Pledge – Definition of pledge – Rights and duties of Pawnor and Pawnee – Pledge by non-owner.

Unit-II: Contract of Agency – Definition of Agent – Creation of Agency – Rights and duties of Agent – Delegation of authority – Personal liability of agent – Relations of principal and agent with third parties – Termination of Agency.

Unit-III: Contract of Sale of Goods – Formation of contract – Subject matter of sale – Conditions and Warranties – Express and implied conditions and warranties – Pricing – Caveat Emptor.

Unit-IV : Property – Possession and Rules relating to passing of property – Sale by non-owner – Nemo dat quad non habet – Delivery of goods – Rights and duties of seller and buyer before and after sale – Rights of unpaid seller – Remedies for breach.

Unit-V : Contract of Partnership – Definition and nature of partnership – Formation of partnership- Test of partnership – Partnership and other associations – Registration of firm – Effect of non-registration – Relations of partners – Rights and duties of partners – Property of firm – Relation of partners to third parties – Implied authority of partners – Kinds of partners – Minor as partner – Reconstitution of firm – Dissolution of firm.

PAPER – II: FAMILY LAW-II (Muslim Law and Other Personal Laws)

Unit-I : Origin and development of Muslim Law – Sources of Muslim Law – Schools of Muslim Law – Difference between the Sunni and Shia Schools – Sub-schools of Sunni Law – Operation and application of Muslim Law – Conversion to Islam – Effects of conversion – Law of Marriage, nature of Muslim Marriage – Essential requirements of valid Marriage – Kinds of Marriages – distinction between void, irregular and valid marriage – Dower (Mahr) – Origin, nature and importance of dower, object of dower and classification of dower.

Unit-II: Divorce – Classification of divorce – different modes of Talaq – Legal consequences of divorce – Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939 – Maintenance, Principles of maintenance, Persons entitled to maintenance – The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 – Effect of conversion on maintenance and difference between Shia and Sunni Law.

Unit-III: Parentage – Maternity and Paternity – Legitimacy and acknowledgment – Guardianship – Meaning – Kinds of guardianship – Removal of guardian – Difference between Shia and Sunni Law. Gift – Definition of Gift – Requisites of valid gift – Gift formalities – Revocation of gift – Kinds of gift. Wills – Meaning of Will – Requisites of valid Will – Revocation of Will – Distinction between Will and Gift – Difference between Shia and Sunni Law.

Unit-IV : Waqf _ Definition – Essentials of Waqf – Kinds of Waqf – Creation of Waqf – – Revocation of Waqf – Salient features of the Waqf Act, 1995 – Mutawalli – Who can be Mutawalli – Powers and duties of Mutawalli – Removal of Mutawalli and Management of Waqf property. Succession – Application of the property of a deceased Muslim – Legal position of heirs as representatives – Administration – Waqf Tribunals and Jurisdiction.

Unit-V : Special Marriage Act, 1954 – Salient features of Indian Divorce Act, 1869 – Domicile – Maintenance to dependents/ Spouses – Intestate succession of Christians under the Indian Succession Act, 1925.



Legislature under Indian Constitution – Union and State Legislatures – Composition, Powers, Functions and Privileges – Anti-Defection Law – Executive under Indian Constitution – President and Union Council of Ministers – Governor and State Council of Ministers – Powers and position of President and Governor


Judiciary under Constitution – Supreme Court – Appointment of Judges, Powers and Jurisdiction – High Courts – Appointment and Transfer of Judges – Powers and Jurisdiction – Subordinate Judiciary – Independence of judiciary – Judicial Accountability


Centre State Relations – Legislative, Administrative and Financial Relations – Cooperation and Coordination between the Centre and States – Judicial Interpretation of Centre-State Relations – Doctrines evolved by Judiciary


Liability of State in Torts and Contracts – Freedom of Interstate Trade, Commerce and Inter course – Services under the State – All India Services – Public Service Commissions


Emergency – Need of Emergency Powers – Different kinds of Emergency – National, State and Financial emergency – Impact of Emergency on Federalism and Fundamental Rights – Amendment of Indian Constitution and Basic Structure Theory


Unit-I: Concept of crime – Definition and meaning of crime – Distinction between crime and tort – Stages of crime – Intention, Preparation, Attempt and Commission of Crime – Elements of Crime – Actus Reus and Mensrea – Codification of Law of Crimes in India – Application of the Indian Penal Code – Territorial and Extra Territorial application – General Explanations – Punishments.

Unit-II: General exceptions – Abetment – Criminal Conspiracy – Offences against the State – Offences against public peace and Tranquility.

Unit-III: Offences affecting human body (offences affecting human life) Culpable Homicide and Murder – Hurt and Grievous Hurt – Wrongful restraint and Wrongful confinement – Criminal force and Assault – Kidnapping and abduction – Sexual offences – Unnatural offences.

Unit-IV: Offences affecting the public health, safety, convenience, decency and morals – Offences against Property – Theft – Extortion – Robbery & Dacoity – Cheating – Mischief – Criminal Trespass – Criminal misappropriation and Criminal breach of trust.

Unit-V : Offences by or relating to public servants – False Evidence and Offences against Public Justice – Offences relating to documents – Offences relating to Marriage – Cruelty by husband and relatives of husband – Defamation.


Unit-I: The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 — Salient features of the Act – Meaning and kinds of Evidence —Interpretation clause — May Presume, Shall presume and Conclusive proof – Fact, Fact in issue and Relevant facts —Distinction between Relevancy and Admissibility – Doctrine of Res Gestae — Motive, preparation and conduct — Conspiracy —When Facts not otherwise relevant become relevant — Right and custom — Facts showing the state of mind etc.

Unit-II : Admissions & Confessions: General Principles concerning Admissions — Differences between “Admission” and “Confession” — Confessions obtained by inducement , threat or promise – Confessions made to police officer – Statement made in the custody of a police officer leading to the discovery of incriminating material — Admissibility of Confessions made by one accused person against co-accused.
Dying Declarations and their evidentiary value — Other Statements by persons who cannot be called as Witnesses — Admissibility of evidence of witnesses in previous judicial proceedings in subsequent judicial proceedings.

Unit-III : Relevancy of Judgments — Opinion of witnesses — Expert’s opinion — Opinion on Relationship especially proof of marriage — Facts which need not be proved — Oral and Documentary Evidence – General Principles concerning oral evidence and documentary evidence — Primary and Secondary evidence — Modes of proof of execution of documents — Presumptions as to documents — General Principles regarding Exclusion of Oral by Documentary Evidence.

Unit-IV: Rules relating to Burden of Proof – Presumption as to Dowry Death — Estoppel — Kinds of estoppel — Res Judicata, Waiver and Presumption.

Unit-V : Competency to testify — Privileged communications – Testimony of Accomplice — Examination in Chief, Cross examination and Re-examination — Leading questions — Lawful questions in cross examination — Compulsion to answer questions put to witness — Hostile witness — Impeaching the credit of witness — Refreshing memory — Questions of corroboration — Improper admission and rejection of evidence.



Unit-I: Meaning and Definition of Jurisprudence — General and Particular Jurisprudence – Elements of Ancient Indian Jurisprudence — Schools of Jurisprudence —­ Analytical, Historical, Philosophical and Sociological Schools of Jurisprudence. Theories of Law — Meaning and Definition of Law — The Nature and Function of Law — The Purpose of Law — The Classification of Law — Equity, Law and Justice — Theory of Sovereignty.

Unit-II : Sources of Law — Legal and Historical Sources — Legislation – Definition of legislation – Classification of legislation- Supreme and Subordinate Legislation – Direct and Indirect Legislation – Principles of Statutory Interpretation. Precedent — Definition of Precedent — Kinds of Precedent — Stare Decisis — Original and Declaratory Precedents — Authoritative and Persuasive Precedents. Custom – Definition of Custom – Kinds of Custom – General and Local Custom – Custom and Prescription – Requisites of a valid custom – Relative merits and demerits of Legislation , Precedent and Custom as a source of Law . Codification — Advantages and disadvantages of codification.

Unit-III: Persons — Nature of personality — Legal Status of Lower Animals, Dead Persons and Unborn persons — Legal Persons — Corporations — Purpose of Incorporation — Nature of Corporate Personality
Rights and Duties — Definition of Right — Classification of Rights and Duties — Absolute and Relative Rights and Duties — Rights and Cognate concepts like Liberty, Power, Immunity, Privilege etc.

Unit-IV : Obligation — Nature of Obligation — Obligation arising out of Contract, Quasi Contract, trust and breach of obligation etc. — Liability — Nature and kinds of liability — Acts — Mens Rea — Intention and Motive — Relevance of Motive — Negligence — Strict Liability — Accident — Vicarious Liability — Measure of Civil and Criminal Liability.

Unit-V: Ownership — Definition and kinds of Ownership – Possession — Elements of Possession – Relation between Ownership and Possession — Possessory Remedies — Property — Meaning — Kinds of Property — Modes of Acquisition of Property — Legal Sanctions – Meaning of Sanction — Classification of Sanctions — Civil and Criminal Justice — Concept of Justice — Theories regarding purpose of Criminal Justice — Deterrent, Preventive, Reformative and Retributive theories.


Unit-I: Meaning and concept of property — Kinds of property — Transfer of property — Transferable and non-transferable property — Who can transfer — Operation of transfer — Mode of transfer — Conditional transfer — Void and unlawful conditions — Condition precedent and condition subsequent — Vested and contingent interest — Transfer to unborn person

Unit-II: Doctrine of Election — Covenants — Transfer by ostensible owner — Doctrine of Feeding the Grant by Estoppel — Doctrine of Lis Pendens — Fraudulent Transfer — Doctrine of Part-performance.

Unit-III: Sale – Essential features — Mode of Sale — Rights and liabilities of parties. Mortgage – Kinds of Mortgages – Rights and liabilities of mortgagor and mortgagee — Marshalling and Contribution — Charges.

Unit-IV: Lease — Essential features — Kinds of leases — Rights and liabilities of lessor and lessee — Termination of lease — forfeiture — Exchange — Gifts — Different types of gifts — Registration of Gifts — Transfer of Actionable Claims.

Unit-V: Easements — Definition of easement — Distinction between Lease and License — Dominant and Servient Tenements. Acquisition of property through testamentary succession — Will — Codicil — Capacity to execute Will — Nature of bequests — Executors of Will — Rights and Obligations of Legatees.


Unit-I: Nature and scope of Administrative Law — Meaning, Definition and Evolution of Administrative Law—Reasons for the growth of Administrative Law — Relationship between Administrative Law and Constitutional Law.

Unit-II: Basic concepts of Administrative Law — Rule of Law — Interpretation of Dicey’s Principle of Rule of Law — Modern trends – Theory of Separation of Powers — Position in India, UK and USA

Unit-III: Classification of Administrative functions — Legislative, Quasi-judicial, Administrative and Ministerial functions — Delegated Legislation — Meaning, Reasons for the growth and Classification of delegated legislation— Judicial and Legislative Control of Delegated litigation.

Unit-IV: Judicial Control of Administrative Action – Grounds of Judicial Control — Principles of Natural Justice — Administrative discretion and its control.

Unit-V: Remedies available against the State — Writs — Lokpal and Lok Ayukta — Liability of the State in Torts and Contracts — Rule of Promissory Estoppel —Administrative Tribunals – Commissions of Inquiry — Public Corporations.

PAPER-IV: Company Law

Unit-I: Definition and attributes of Company — Distinction between Partnership Firm and Company — Kinds of Companies including Multinational Companies — Advantages and Disadvantages of Incorporation — Consequences of non-compliance of the provisions of the Companies Act in matters of incorporation.

Unit-II: Promoters and Registration — Pre-incorporation contracts — Memorandum of Association — Articles of Association.

Unit-III: Prospectus — Members — Shareholders — Share Capital — Shares and Dividends — Debentures — Directors — Powers and Liabilities of Directors.

Unit-IV: Director, Manager and Secretary — Meetings — Majority powers and minority rights — Prevention of Oppression and Mismanagement

Unit-V: Modes of winding up of companies — Consequences of winding up — Functions of Official Liquidator.



Trade Unions: History of Trade Union Movement – The Trade Union Act 1926 – Definitions – Registration – Rights and Liabilities of Registered Trade Unions – Immunities – Amalgamation and dissolution of Unions – Reorganization of Trade Unions.


Prevention and Settlement of Industrial Disputes in India – The role of State in Industrial Relations – The Industrial Disputes Act 1947 – Definition of industry – Industrial Dispute – Individual Dispute – workman- Lay off – Retrenchment – Closure -Award – Strike – Lockout


Authorities under the IDAct – Works committee – Conciliation – Court of inquiry – Labour Courts- Tribunal – Powers and functions of authorities – Voluntary Arbitration – Provisions under Chapter V-A & V- B of the Act- Alteration of conditions of servi ce – Management rights of action during pendency of proceedings – Recovery of money due from employer – Unfair labour practices – miscellaneous provisions of the Act.


Standing Orders – Concept and Nature of Standing Orders – scope and coverage- Certification process – its operation and binding effect – Modification and Temporary application of Model Standing Orders – Interpretation and enforcement of Standing Orders and provisions contained in the Industrial Employment ( Standing Orders ) Act 1946.


Disciplinary Proceedings in Industries – Charge sheet – Explanation – Domestic enquiry – Enquiry officer – Enquiry report – Punishment – Principles of Natural Justice.




The Remunerative Aspects – Wages – Concepts of wages – Minimum, Fair, Living Wages – Wage and Industrial Policies – Whitley Commission Recommendations -Provisions of Payment of Wages Act 1936 – Timely payment of wages – Authorised deductions – Claims – Minimum Wages Act 1948 – Definitions – Types of wages -Minimum rates of wages – Procedure for fixing and revising Minimum Wages – Claims -Remedy.


Bonus – concept – Right to claim Bonus – Full Bench formula – Bonus Commission – Payment of Bonus Act 1965 – Application – Computation of gross profit, available, allocable surplus – Eligibility of Bonus – Disqualification of Bonus – set on – set off of allocable surplus- Minimum and Maximum Bonus-Recovery of Bonus.


Employees Security and Welfare aspect – Social Security – Concept and meaning – Social Insurance – Social Assistance Schemes. Social Security Legislations – Law relating to workmen’s compensation – The Workmen’s Compensation Act 1923 – Definitions -Employer’s liability for compensation – Nexus between injury and employment – payment of compensation – penalty for default – Employees State Insurance Act 1948 – Application – Benefits under the Act – Adjudication of disputes and claims – ESI Corporation.


Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 – Contributions -Schemes under the Act – Benefits. The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 – Definitions-Application – Benefits. The Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 – Definitions – application – Payment of gratuity – eligibility – forfeiture – Nomination – Controlling authorities.


The Factories Act 1948 – Chapters dealing with Health, Safety and Welfare of Labour.
Child Labour – Rights of child and the Indian Constitution – Salient features of the Child Labour(Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986.


Unit-I: Definition, Nature, Scope and Importance of International Law — Relation of International Law to Municipal Law — Sources of International Law — Codification.

Unit-II: State Recognition — State Succession — Responsibility of States for International delinquencies — State Territory — Modes of acquiring State Territory

Unit-III: Position of Individual in International Law — Nationality — Extradition — Asylum — Privileges and Immunities of Diplomatic Envoys — Treaties – Formation of Treaties – Modes of Consent, Reservation and termination.

Unit-IV: The Legal Regime of the Seas – Evolution of the Law of the Sea – Freedoms of the High Seas – Common Heritage of Mankind – United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas – Legal Regime of Airspace – Important Conventions relating to Airspace – Paris, Havana, Warsaw and Chicago Conventions – Five Freedoms of Air – Legal Regime of Outer space – Important Conventions such as Outer space Treaty, Agreement on Rescue and Return of Astronauts, Liability Convention, Agreement on Registration of Space objects, Moon Treaty – Unispace.

Unit-V: International Organizations — League of Nations and United Nations — International Court of Justice —International Criminal Court – Specialized agencies of the UN — WHO, UNESCO, ILO, IMF and WTO.

PAPER-III: interpretation of statutes

Unit-I: Meaning and Definition of Statutes — Classification of Statues — Meaning and Definition of Interpretation — General Principles of Interpretation — Rules of Construction under the General Clauses Act, 1897.

Unit-II: Grammatical Rule of Interpretation — Golden Rule of Interpretation – Rule of Interpretation to avoid mischief.

Unit-III: Interpretation of Penal Statutes and Statutes of Taxation — Beneficial Construction — Construction to avoid conflict with other provisions — Doctrine of Harmonious Construction.

Unit-IV: External Aids to Interpretation — Statement of objects of legislation, Legislative debates, identification of purpose sought to be achieved through legislation — Internal Aids to Interpretation — Preamble, title, interpretation clause, marginal notes, explanations etc. — Presumptions.

Unit-V: Effect of Repeal — Effect of amendments to statutes — Conflict between parent legislation and subordinate legislation — Methods of interpreting substantive and procedural laws.

PAPER-IV: land laws

Unit-I: Classification of lands — Ownership of Land — Absolute and limited ownership (tenancy, lease etc.) — Doctrine of Eminent Domain — Doctrine of Escheat – Doctrine of Bona Vacantia — Maintenance of land records and issue of Pattas and Title Deeds etc.

Unit-II: Law Reforms before and after independence — Zamindari Settlement — Ryotwari Settlement — Mahalwari System — Intermediaries — Constitutional Provisions — Abolition of Zamindaries, Jagirs and Inams — Tenancy Laws — Conferment of ownership on tenants/Ryots.

Unit-III: Laws relating to acquisition of property — Land Acquisition Act of 1894 (Issue of notifications, Award enquiry, Payment of compensation & Reference to civil courts etc.) The Land Acquisition and Requisition Act.

Unit-IV: Laws relating to Ceiling on Land Holdings — A.P. Land Reforms (Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings) Act, 1973 — Effect of inclusion in the IX Schedule of the Constitution — Interpretation of Directive Principles of State Policy — The Urban Land (Ceiling on Holdings) Act, 1976.

Unit-V: Laws relating to alienation — A.P. Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation 1959 — A.P. Assigned Lands (Prohibition of Transfers) Act, 1977-Resumption of Lands to the Transferor/Government – A.P. Land Grabbing (Prohibition) Act.

PAPER-V: Intellectual property law

Unit-I: Meaning, Nature, Classification and protection of Intellectual Property — The main forms of Intellectual Property — Copyright, Trademarks, Patents, Designs (Industrial and Layout) — Geographical Indications – Plant Varieties Protection and Biotechnology.

Unit-II: Introduction to the leading International instruments concerning Intellectual Property Rights — The Berne Convention — Universal Copyright Convention — The Paris Union — Patent Co-operation Treaty — The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the UNEESCO, International Trade Agreements concerning IPR — WTO — TRIPS.

Unit-III : Select aspects of the Law of Copyright in India — The Copy Right Act, 1957 – Historical evolution — Meaning of copyright — Copyright in literary, dramatic and musical works, computer programmes and cinematograph films — Neighbouring rights — Rights of performers and broadcasters, etc. — Ownership and Assignment of copyright — Author’s special rights — Notion of infringement — Criteria of infringement — Infringement of copyright in films, literary and dramatic works — Authorities under the Act — Remedies for infringement of copyright.

Unit-IV: Intellectual Property in Trademarks and the rationale of their protection – The Trade Marks Act, 1999 — Definition of Trademarks — Distinction between Trademark and Property Mark – Registration — Passing off —Infringement of Trademark — Criteria of Infringement — Remedies. The Designs Act, 2000 — Definition and characteristics of Design — Law in India — Protection and rights of design holders — Copyright in design — Registration — Remedies for infringement.

Unit-V: Patents — Concept of Patent — Historical overview of the Patents Law in India — Patentable Inventions — Kinds of Patents — Procedure for obtaining patent — The Patents Act, 1970 — Rights and obligations of a patentee — Term of patent protection — Use and exercise of rights — Exclusive Marketing Rights — Right to Secrecy — The notion of ‘abuse’ of patent rights — Infringement of patent rights and remedies available.



Unit-I : Codification of Civil Procedure and Introduction to CPC — Principal features of the Civil Procedure Code — Suits — Parties to Suit — Framing of Suit —Institution of Suits — Bars of Suit – Doctrines of Sub Judice and Res Judicata — Place of Suing — Transfer of suits — Territorial Jurisdiction — ‘Cause of Action’ and Jurisdictional Bars — Summons — Service of Foreign summons.

Unit-II : Pleadings — Contents of pleadings — Forms of Pleading — Striking out / Amendment of Pleadings – Plaint— Essentials of Plaint – Return of Plaint—Rejection of Plaint—Production and marking of Documents— Written Statement — Counter claim — Set off — Framing of issues.

Unit-III : Appearance and Examination of parties & Adjournments — Ex-parte Procedure — Summoning and Attendance of Witnesses — Examination — Admissions — Production, Impounding, Return of Documents — Hearing — Affidavit —Judgment and Decree — Concepts of Judgment, Decree, and Interim Orders and Stay — Injunctions — Appointment of Receivers and Commissions — Costs — Execution — Concept of Execution — General Principles of Execution — Power of Execution — Power of Executing Courts — Procedure for Execution — Modes of Execution — Arrest and detention — Attachment and Sale.

Unit-IV: Suits in Particular Cases — Suits by or against Government — Suits relating to public matters;— Suits by or against minors, persons with unsound mind, – Suits by indigent persons — Interpleader suits — Incidental and supplementary proceedings – Appeals, Reference, Review and Revision — Appeals from Original Decrees — Appeals from Appellate Decrees — Appeals from Orders — General Provisions Relating to Appeals.

Unit-V: Law of Limitation — Concept of Limitation — Object of limitation – General Principles of Limitation — Extension — Condonation of delay — Sufficient Cause — Computation of limitation — Acknowledgment and Part-payment — Legal Disability — Provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 (Excluding Schedule) Allahabad.


Unit-I : The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 : The rationale of Criminal Procedure — The importance of fair trial — Constitutional Perspectives : Articles 14, 20 & 21 — The organization of Police, Prosecutor and Defence Counsel — Pre-trial Process — Arrest — Distinction between “cognizable” and “non-cognizable” offences — Steps to ensure presence of accused at trial — Warrant and Summons cases — Arrest with and without Warrant — The absconder status — Rights of arrested persons under Cr.P.C. and Article 22 (2) of the Constitution of India.

Unit-II: Search and Seizure — Search with and without warrant — Police search during investigation — General Principles of Search — Seizure — Constitutional aspects of validity of Search and Seizure proceedings.

Unit-III : Trial Process: Commencement of Proceedings — Dismissal of Complaint — Bail, Bailable and Non-bailable Offences — Cancellation of Bails — Anticipatory Bail — General Principles concerning Bail Bond — Preliminary pleas to bar trial — Jurisdiction — Time Limitations — Pleas of Autrefois Acquit and Autrefois Convict — Fair Trial — Concept of fair trial — Presumption of innocence — Venue of trial —Jurisdiction of Criminal Courts — Rights of accused — Constitutional Interpretation of Article 21 as a right to speedy trial — Charge — Form and content of Charge — Trial before a Court of Session : Procedural steps and substantive rights.

Unit-IV: Judgment: Form and content — Summary trial — Post-conviction orders in lieu of punishment — Modes of providing judgment copy — appeals, review and revisions.

Unit-V: Probation and Parole: Authority granting Parole — Supervision — Conditional release — suspension of sentence — Procedure under Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 — Salient features of the Act. Juvenile Justice System — Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act of 2000 — Procedure under Juvenile Justice…Act — Treatment and Rehabilitation of Juveniles —— Protection of Juvenile Offenders — Legislative and Judicial Role.


Unit-I: History of the Banking Regulation Act — Salient features — Banking Business and its importance in modern times.

Unit-II: Relationship between Banker and Customer — Debtor and Creditor Relationship — Fiduciary Relationship — Trustee and Beneficiary — Principal and Agent — Bail and Bailee — Guarantor, etc.

Unit-III: Cheques — Crossed Cheques — Account Payee — Banker’s Drafts — Dividend Warrants — Postal order and money orders — Travelers cheques and circular notes — Negotiable instruments and deemed negotiable instruments — Salient features of Negotiable Instruments Act.

Unit-IV: The Paying Banker — Statutory protection to Bankers — Forgeries—Collecting Banker – Statutory protection.

Unit-V: Banker’s lien and set off. — Advances – Pledge – Land – Stocks – Shares – Life Policies – Document of title to Goods – Bank Guarantees – Letters of Credit.


The written examination of this paper will be for 50 marks and the remaining 50 marks for record and viva voce. There shall be classroom instruction on the following topics:

Unit-I: Alternate Dispute Resolution — Characteristics — Advantages and Disadvantages——Unilateral — Bilateral — Triadic (Third Party) Intervention — Techniques and processes — Negotiation — Conciliation —Arbitration — Distinction between Arbitration, Conciliation and Negotiation.

Unit-II: The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 — Historical Background and Objectives of the Act — Definitions of Arbitration, Arbitrator, Arbitration Agreement — Appointment of Arbitrator — Termination of Arbitrator — Proceedings in Arbitral Tribunal — Termination of Proceedings — Arbitral Award — Setting aside of Arbitral Award — Finality and Enforcement of Award — Appeals – Enforcement of Foreign Awards. Conciliation – Appointment of Conciliators – Powers and Functions of Conciliator — Procedure – Settlement of disputes through conciliation.

Unit-III: Other Alternative Dispute Resolution Systems —Tribunals — Lokpal and Lokayukta — Lok Adalats — Family Courts. Section 89 and Order X, Rules 1A, 1B and 1C of Civil Procedure Code.
Practical Exercises (30 marks)

(a) The students are required to participate in 5 (five) simulation proceedings relating to Arbitration, Conciliation, Mediation and Negotiation. Participation in each such simulation proceeding shall be evaluated for a maximum of 4 (four) marks (Total 5×4=20marks).

(b) Students are required to attend and observe the proceedings of Lok Adalats, Family Courts, Tribunals and other ADR Systems. Each student shall record the above observations in the diary which will be assessed. Record submitted by the student shall be evaluated for 10 marks by the teacher concerned. The Records of the students duly certified by the University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law shall be submitted to the University before the commencement of the theory examinations
Viva- voce (20marks): There shall be viva-voce examination on the above components. The Viva-voce Board consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the teacher concerned (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law, and (iii) an advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar shall evaluate the student in the Viva. The proceedings of the viva-voce shall be recorded.
Note: Attendance of the students in all the four components of the paper (written examination, participation in simulation proceedings, submission of record and attendance in viva) shall be compulsory.



The written examination of this paper will be for 50 marks and the remaining 50 marks for record and viva voce. There shall be classroom instruction on the following topics:

Unit-I: Development of Legal Profession in India — The Advocates Act, 1961 — Right to Practice — a right or privilege? – Constitutional guarantee under Article 19(1) (g) and its scope — Enrolment and Practice — Regulation governing enrolment and practice — Practice of Law — Solicitors firm — Elements of Advocacy.

Unit-II : Seven lamps of advocacy — Advocates duties towards public, clients, court, and other advocates and legal aid ; Bar Council Code of Ethics.

Unit-III: Disciplinary proceedings — Professional misconduct — Disqualifications — Functions of Bar Council of India/State Bar Councils in dealing with the disciplinary proceedings —Disciplinary Committees — Powers and functions – Disqualification and removal from rolls.

Unit-IV: Accountancy for Lawyers — Nature and functions of accounting — Important branches of accounting — Accounting and Law – Bar Bench Relations.

Record (30 marks): Each student shall write 50 selected opinions of the
Disciplinary Committees of Bar Councils and 10 major judgments of the
Supreme Court of India in the Record. The Record shall be evaluated for 30
marks by the teacher concerned. The Records of the students duly certified by
the University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in
consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law shall be submitted to the
University before the commencement of the theory examinations.

Viva- voce (20marks): There shall be viva-voce examination on the above components. The Viva-voce Board consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the teacher concerned (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law, and (iii) an advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar shall evaluate the student in the Viva. The proceedings of the viva-voce shall be recorded.
Note: All the three components of the paper (written examination, submission of record and attendance in viva) shall be compulsory.



Unit-I : Constitutional basis of power of taxation — Article 265 of Constitution of India — Basic concept of Income Tax — Outlines of Income Tax Law — Definition of Income and Agricultural Income under Income Tax Act — Residential Status — Previous Year — Assessment Year — Computation of Income.

Unit-II: Heads of Income and Computation — Income from Salary, Income from House Property. Profits and Gains of Business or Profession, Capital Gains and Income from other sources.

Unit-III: Law and Procedure — P.A.N. — Filing of Returns — Payment of Advance Tax — Deduction of Tax at Source (TDS) — Double Tax Relief — Law and Procedure for Assessment, Penalties, Prosecution, Appeals and Grievances — Authorities.

Unit-IV : Wealth Tax — Charge of Wealth Tax — Persons liable to Wealth Tax — Persons exempted from Wealth Tax — Assessment — Deemed Assessment — Debts — Assessment year — Previous Year — Valuation Date — Rate of Wealth Tax — Wealth Tax Procedure — Filing of Returns — Statement of net wealth, Computation of Wealth Tax, Valuation rules for immovable property, Business Assets, Jewelry.

Unit-V: Sales Tax & Value Added Tax — Relevant important provisions of A.P. General Sales Tax and VAT laws – Assessment — Procedure -Practice of Sales Tax and VAT – Authorities – Powers and Jurisdiction.



Concept of Information Technology and Cyber Space- Interface of Technology and Law -Jurisdiction in Cyber Space and Jurisdiction in traditional sense – Internet Jurisdiction – Indian Context of Jurisdiction – Enforcement agencies – International position of Internet Jurisdiction – Cases in Cyber Jurisdiction


Information Technology Act, 2000 – Aims and Objects — Overview of the Act – Jurisdiction – Electronic Governance – Legal Recognition of Electronic Records and Electronic Evidence – Digital Signature Certificates – Securing Electronic records and secure digital signatures – Duties of Subscribers – Role of Certifying Authorities – Regulators under the Act – The Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal – Internet Service Providers and their Liability – Powers of Police under the Act – Impact of the Act on other Laws.


E-Commerce – UNCITRAL Model – Legal aspects of E-Commerce – Digital Signatures – Technical and Legal issues – E-Commerce, Trends and Prospects – E-taxation, E-banking, online publishing and online credit card payment – Employment Contracts – Contractor Agreements, Sales, Re-Seller and Distributor Agreements, Non-Disclosure Agreements- Shrink Wrap Contract ,Source Code, Escrow Agreements etc.


Cyber Law and IPRs-Understanding Copy Right in Information Technology – Software – Copyrights vs Patents debate – Authorship and Assignment Issues – Copyright in Internet – Multimedia and Copyright issues – Software Piracy –Patents – Understanding Patents – European Position on Computer related Patents – Legal position of U.S. on Computer related Patents – Indian Position on Computer related Patents –Trademarks – Trademarks in Internet – Domain name registration – Domain Name Disputes & WIPO -Databases in Information Technology – Protection of databases – Position in USA,EU and India


Cyber Crimes – Meaning of Cyber Crimes – Different Kinds of Cyber crimes – Cyber crimes under IPC, Cr.P.C and Indian Evidence Law – Cyber crimes under the Information Technology Act,2000 – Cyber crimes under International Law – Hacking Child Pornography, Cyber Stalking, Denial of service Attack, Virus Dissemination, Software Piracy,Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Crime, Credit Card Fraud, Net Extortion, Phishing etc – Cyber Terrorism – Violation of Privacy on Internet – Data Protection and Privacy

PAPER-III: OPTIONAL (Any one of the following subjects)


Unit-I : Historical background and status of women in ancient India — Constitutional Provisions and gender justice — Relevant provisions relating to women in Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties etc. under the Indian Constitution.

Unit-II: Laws relating to marriage, divorce and succession and maintenance under the relevant personal laws with special emphasis on women — Special Marriage Act — Maintenance under Cr. P.C.

Unit-III : Special provisions relating to women under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 — Offences against women under Indian Penal Code – outraging the modesty of women -sexual harassment – rape – bigamy – mock and fraudulent marriages – adultery – causing miscarriage – insulting women etc.

Unit-IV: Socio-Legal position of women and the law — Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act — Law relating to the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) and Sex selection — Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act — Law relating to domestic violence.

Unit-V : Relevant provisions relating to women under Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, Factories Act and other Labour & Industrial Laws — Position of Women under International instruments — Salient features of Convention for Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) — International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights — International Covenant on Social, Cultural and Economic Rights.



Meaning and definition of Human Rights – Evolution of Human Rights – Human Rights and Domestic Jurisdiction


Adoption of Human Rights by the UN Charter – U.N.Commission on Human Rights – Universal Declaration of Human Rights – International Covenants on Human Rights( Civil and Political; Economic, Social and Cultural).


Regional Conventions on Human Rights – European Convention on Human Rights – American Convention on Human Rights – African Charter on Human Rights(Banjul).


International Conventions on Human Rights – Genocide Convention, Convention against Torture, CEDAW, Child Rights Convention, Convention on Statelessness, Convention against Slavery, Convention on Refugees – International Conference on Human Rights(1968) – World Conference on Human Rights(1993).


Human Rights Protection in India – Human Rights Commissions – Protection of Human Rights Act – National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) – State Human Rights Commissions – Human Right Courts in Districts.


Unit-I: Administration of Company Law in relation to issue of prospectus and shares — membership and share capital — Kinds of shares — public issue of shares — procedure for issue of shares — allotment of shares — transfer and transmission of shares.

Unit-II: Debentures – Kinds of Debentures and Charges – Dividend — Inter-Corporate Loans and Investments.

Unit-III: Basic features of the Security Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 — Recognition of Stock Exchanges – Regulation of Contracts and option in securities — Listing of securities — Guidelines for listing of shares / debentures.

Unit-IV : Basic features of the Security and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 — Basic features of the Act — Establishment of SEBI — Functions and Powers of SEBI — Powers of the Central Government under the Act — Guidelines for disclosure — Investors Protection – SEBI Appellate Tribunal — Appeals.

Unit-V: Non-Banking Financial Institutions – Classification and Law Relating to NFBCs – AP Protection of Depositors Act, 1999.

Class-room instruction and simulation exercises on the following items shall be extended.


Drafting: General Principles of Drafting and relevant Substantive Rules shall be taught.


Pleadings: (i) Civil—Plaint, Written Statement, Interlocutory Application, Original Petition, Affidavit, Execution Petition, Memorandum of Appeal and Revision.

(ii) Petition under Article 226 and 32 of the Constitution of India – Drafting of Writ Petition and PIL Petition.

(iii) Criminal— Complaint, Criminal Miscellaneous Petition, Bail Application, Memorandum of Appeal and Revision.


Conveyancing: Sale Deed, Mortgage Deed, Lease Deed, Gift Deed, Promissory Note, Power of Attorney, Will, Trust Deed
Practical Exercises Apart from teaching the relevant law, the course includes not less than 15 (fifteen) practical exercises in drafting of pleadings carrying a total of 45 marks (3 marks for each) and 15 (fifteen) exercises in conveyancing carrying another 45 marks (3 marks for each exercise) and remaining 10 marks for viva-voce.
These 30 exercises shall be recorded. Each student shall be served with different problems for the purpose of exercise. These exercises shall be assessed and marks may be allotted.

These exercises shall be evaluated by a common committee consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the concerned teacher (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, Board of Studies in Law, O.U.; and (iii) an Advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar. The same committee will also conduct viva-voce on the above concepts. The proceedings of the viva-voce shall be recorded.

1. Attendance of the students for viva-voce shall be compulsory.

2. The above records certified by the University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law shall be submitted to the University for Further Verification
This paper has three components of 30 marks each and viva-voce for 10 marks.
(A) Moot Court (30 marks): Every student is required to participate in at least three moot courts in the VI Semester with 10 marks for each. The moot court work will be on an assigned problem and it will be evaluated for 5 marks for written submissions and 5 marks for oral advocacy.
Marks will be given on the basis of written submission and oral advocacy. Written submissions shall include brief summary of facts, issues involved, provisions of laws and arguments, citation, prayer, etc. Marks for oral advocacy may be awarded for communication skills, presentations, language, provisions of law; authorities quoted, court manners, etc. Written Memorials submitted by the students shall be kept by the College for Further Verification.
The performance of student in the moot court shall be evaluated by a committee consisting of (i) Principal of the College (ii) an Advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar; and (iii) the teacher concerned.
(B) Observance of Trial in two cases, one Civil and one Criminal (30 marks):
Students are required to attend courts to observe at least one civil and one criminal case. They shall maintain a record and enter the various steps observed during their attendance on different days in the court assignment. The Court Observation Record submitted by the students should be evaluated by a committee consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the concerned teacher (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, Board of Studies in Law, O.U.; and (iii) an Advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar and average be taken. Court attendance shall be compulsory and attendance has to be recorded in a register kept therefor. This may be carried under the supervision of a teacher of the college. This scheme will carry 30 marks.
(C) Interviewing Techniques and Pre-Trial Preparations and Internship Diary
(30 marks):
Each student should observe two ‘interview sessions’ of clients either in the Lawyer’s Office or in the Legal Aid Office and record the proceedings in a diary, which will carry 15 marks.
Each student has to further observe the preparation of documents and court papers by the Advocate and the procedure for the filing of the suit / petition. This shall be recorded in the diary which will carry 15 marks.
The diary shall clearly indicate the dates on which the above observations are made and they shall be authenticated by the advocate concerned.
Evaluation of the above diary shall be made by the committee consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the concerned teacher (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, Board of Studies in Law, O.U.; and (iii) an Advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar and average be taken.
(D)Viva-voce (10 marks): There shall be viva-voce examination on all the above three components. The Viva-voce Board consisting of (i) Principal of the College/the concerned teacher (ii) University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law; and (iii)an advocate with 10 years experience at the Bar shall evaluate the student in the Viva. The proceedings of the viva-voce shall be recorded.
1. Attendance of the students in all the four components of the paper shall be compulsory.
2. The above records, diary certified by the University Representative appointed by the Controller of Examinations in consultation with the Chairman, BOS in Law shall be submitted to the University for Further Verification.

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